A thermotolerant, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, sporangium-forming actinomycete, strain RA45T, was isolated from a desert region in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, north-western China. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characterization revealed that strain RA45T belonged phylogenetically to the family Pseudonocardiaceae of the suborder Pseudonocardineae. Strain RA45T showed more than 5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from recognized species of genera in the family Pseudonocardiaceae, forming a distinct lineage within the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genera Amycolatopsis, Prauserella, Thermocrispum, Saccharomonospora, Saccharopolyspora and Sciscionella, but distinct from each of them. The affiliation to the family was supported by the presence of suborder- and family-specific 16S rRNA signature nucleotides, a DNA G+C content of 69.9 mol%, the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid, ribose, arabinose, glucose and galactose, which are characteristic components of cell-wall chemotype IV of actinomycetes, the presence of menaquinone MK-9(H4) as the major respiratory lipoquinone, a lack of mycolic acids and the presence of an N-acetylated type of muramic acid. However, strain RA45T differed from known genera of the family in its polar lipid composition: the major phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids of unknown structure and phospholipids of unknown structure containing glucosamine (phospholipid type IV). Based on its morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain RA45T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Pseudonocardiaceae, for which the name Yuhushiella deserti gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Yuhushiella deserti is RA45T (=CGMCC 4.5579T =JCM 16584T).