Novel dichloromethane-fermenting bacteria in the Peptococcaceae family

Holland et al. (2021). The ISME Journal 15 (6)
Names (1)
Ca. Formimonas warabiya
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics Microbiology
AbstractDichloromethane (DCM; CH2Cl2) is a toxic groundwater pollutant that also has a detrimental effect on atmospheric ozone levels. As a dense non-aqueous phase liquid, DCM migrates vertically through groundwater to low redox zones, yet information on anaerobic microbial DCM transformation remains scarce due to a lack of cultured organisms. We report here the characterisation of DCMF, the dominant organism in an anaerobic enrichment culture (DFE) capable of fermenting DCM to the environmentally benign product acetate. Stable carbon isotope experiments demonstrated that the organism assimilated carbon from DCM and bicarbonate via the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. DCMF is the first anaerobic DCM-degrading population also shown to metabolise non-chlorinated substrates. It appears to be a methylotroph utilising the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway for metabolism of methyl groups from methanol, choline, and glycine betaine. The flux of these substrates from subsurface environments may either directly (DCM, methanol) or indirectly (choline, glycine betaine) affect the climate. Community profiling and cultivation of cohabiting taxa in culture DFE without DCMF suggest that DCMF is the sole organism in this culture responsible for substrate metabolism, while the cohabitants persist via necromass recycling. Genomic and physiological evidence support placement of DCMF in a novel genus within the Peptococcaceae family, ‘Candidatus Formimonas warabiya’.
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