'Ca. Phytoplasma pini' is a member of phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene RFLP group XXI, subgroup XXI-A. It has been identified in a number of European countries, including Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Spain, Czech Republic and Croatia. Outside of Europe it has been identified in China and Mozambique. A related strain has also been identified in Maryland, USA. In the USA, favourable climatic conditions and wide availability of potential host plants of the phytoplasma, suggest that the potential for spread of 'Ca. Phytoplasma pini' could be significant. Host plants include Pinus sylvestris, P. halepensis, P. mugo, P. banksiana, P. nigra, P. tabuliformis, Abies procera and Tsuga canadensis. Symptoms include the formation of ball-like growths containing dwarfed needles, yellowed or reddish needles and the loss of needles. It is transmitted by insect vectors that are currently unknown.