The reference strain of 'Ca. Phytoplasma trifolii' is the causative agent of clover proliferation (CP) disease of alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum). The CP disease was first reported in Canada in the early 1960s when the aetiological agent was mistakenly presumed to be a yellows-type virus (Chiykowski, 1965). Subsequent investigations revealed that the disease was associated with infection by a mycoplasma-like organism (Chen and Hiruki, 1975; Hiruki and Chen, 1984), now termed phytoplasma, strain CPR (Hiruki and Wang, 2004). Later, phytoplasmas of the same lineage (subgroup 16SrVI-A) were found in the USA, Mexico, and many countries in Europe and Asia, causing diseases in diverse leguminous and vegetable crops, responsible for significant yield losses and quality reductions. Phytoplasmas of the same lineage also caused disease in elm trees in the USA. Phytoplasmas of closely-related lineages (various subgroups of group 16SrVI) also have wide distributions around the world.