Many microorganisms live in anaerobic environments. Most of these microorganisms have not yet been cultivated. Here, we present, from a metagenomic analysis of an anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, a reconstruction of the complete genome of a bacterium belonging to the WWE1 candidate division. In silico proteome analysis indicated that this bacterium might derive most of its carbon and energy from the fermentation of amino acids, and hence, it was provisionally classified as “
Cloacamonas acidaminovorans.” “
Cloacamonas acidaminovorans” is probably a syntrophic bacterium that is present in many anaerobic digesters. This report highlights how environmental sequence data might provide genomic and functional information about a new bacterial clade whose members are involved in anaerobic digestion.