“Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus” (Leu) is one of six currently known Liberibacter species. It is known primarily from pear and related species across Europe, and from Scotch broom and its associated psyllids in New Zealand (introduced from Britain). The psyllids were introduced to New Zealand as a biocontrol agent for broom and it is thought the bacterium may have been introduced as an endosymbiont of the psyllids. No symptoms in apple or pear trees have been reported, but mild symptoms can occur in broom. 16S and 16S–23S intergenic spacer region DNA sequences of this species are available from GenBank. Analysis of these sequences and associated ecological descriptions indicates the occurrence of two haplotypes, LeuA and LeuB, defined not only genetically but also by geographic range as well as by plant/psyllid host species composition. Liberibacter species are new to science and haplotype identifications enable historical accounts of relationships and spread to be generated.