Changes in physiological and biochemical patterns in lucerne plants caused by the presence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia’, which is one of the significant pathogens causing yield losses in lucerne plants, were investigated. Significant differences were evident in total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and protein amounts between ‘Ca. Phytoplasma australasia’-positive and negative lucerne plants. Stress-related metabolites such as phenol, malondialdehyde, and proline accumulations in ‘Ca. Phytoplasma australasia’-positive plants were remarkably higher than those of phytoplasma-negative plants. As a response to disease attack, phytoplasma-positive plants exhibited higher antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase and catalase) and non-enzymatic metabolite responses such as jasmonic and salicylic acids. We state that partial disease responses were revealed for the first time to breed resistant lucerne lines infected by ‘Ca. Phytoplasma australasia’.