Microorganisms called anammox bacteria are efficient in removing bioavailable nitrogen from many natural and human-made environments. They exist in almost every anoxic habitat where both ammonium and nitrate/nitrite are present.
Patescibacteria” have been estimated to account for one-quarter of the total microbial diversity on Earth, the parasitic lifestyle of which may exert a profound control on the overall microbial population size of the local ecosystems. However, their diversity and metabolic functions in marine sediments, one of the largest yet understudied ecosystems on Earth, remain virtually uncharacterized.
AbstractAnaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria are a group of extraordinary bacteria exerting a major impact on the global nitrogen cycle. Their phylogenetic breadth and diversity, however, are not well constrained. Here we describe a new, deep-branching family in the order of Candidatus Brocadiales, Candidatus Bathyanammoxibiaceae, members of which have genes encoding the key enzymes of the anammox metabolism. In marine sediment cores from the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR), the presence of Ca. Bathyanammoxibiaceae was confined within the nitrate-ammonium transition zones with the counter gradients of nitrate and ammonium, coinciding with the predicted occurrence of the anammox process. Ca. Bathyanammoxibiaceae genomes encode the core genetic machinery for the anammox metabolism, including hydrazine synthase for converting nitric oxide and ammonium to hydrazine, and hydrazine dehydrogenase for hydrazine oxidation to dinitrogen gas, and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase for nitrite reduction to nitric oxide. Their occurrences assessed by genomes and 16S rRNA gene sequencings surveys indicate that they are present in both marine and terrestrial environments. By introducing the anammox potential of Ca. Bathyanammoxibiaceae and charactering their ideal niche in marine sediments, our findings suggest that the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria may be higher than previously thought, and provide important insights on cultivating them in the future to not only assess their biogeochemical impacts but also constrain the emergence and evolutionary history of this functional guild on Earth.
The exploration of deep marine sediments has unearthed many new lineages of microbes. The finding of this novel phylum of Asgard archaea is important, since understanding the diversity and evolution of Asgard archaea may inform also about the evolution of eukaryotic cells. The comparison of metabolic potentials of the Asgard archaea can help inform about selective pressures the lineages have faced during evolution.
AbstractThe Asgard superphylum is a deeply branching monophyletic group of Archaea, recently described as some of the closest relatives of the eukaryotic ancestor. The wide application of genomic analyses from metagenome sequencing has established six distinct phyla, whose genomes encode for diverse metabolic capacities and play important biogeochemical and ecological roles in marine sediments. Here, we describe two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from deep marine sediments off Costa Rica margin, defining a novel lineage phylogenetically married to Thorarchaeota, as such we propose the name “Sifarchaeota” for this phylum. The two “Sifarchaeota” MAGs encode for an anaerobic methylotrophy pathway enabling the utilization of C1-C3 compounds (methanol and methylamines) to synthesize acetyl CoA. Also, the MAGs showed a remarkable saccharolytic capabilities compared to other Asgard lineages and encoded for diverse classes of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) targeting different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Comparative genomic analysis based on the full metabolic profiles of Asgard lineages revealed the close relation between “Sifarchaeota” and Odinarchaeota MAGs, which suggested a similar metabolic potentials and ecological roles. Furthermore, we identified multiple potential horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from different bacterial donors within “Sifarchaetoa” MAGs, which hypothetically expanded “Sifarchaeota” capacities for substrate utilization, energy production and niche adaptation.ImportanceDeep marine sediments are the home of multiple poorly described archaeal lineages, many of which have ecological and evolutionary importance. We recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to a novel Asgard phylum from the deep sediment of the Costa Rica margin. We proposed the name “Sifarchaeota” to describe the members of this phylum. Representative genomes of the “Sifarchaeota” showed remarkable saccharolytic capacities extending the known metabolic features encoded by the Asgard lineages. We attribute its ability to survive under the deep sediment conditions to its putative capacities to utilize different (C1-C3) compounds commonly encountered in deep sediment environments via anaerobic methylotrophy pathway. Also, we showed the importance of horizontal gene transfer in enhancing the “Sifarchaeota” collective adaptation strategies.