"Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" is a gram-negative, fastidious bacterium that inhabits and multiplies in the phloem of host plants. The bacterium causes economically important diseases of solanaceous crops such as "zebra chips" of potatoes, and chlorotic weakening of cultivated plants of the Apiaceae family. Beside potatotes, this pathogen causes significant economic losses in tobacco, peper and tomato production. Insect vectors classified in the family Triozidae play an important role in the epidemiology of this bacterium. Insects transfer bacterial cells from infected to healthy plants by feeding on the plant juice from the phloem tissue. This pathogenic bacterium could be transmitted by infected seeds which result in long-distance spread. Based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), nine haplotypes (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, U) from different geographical regions, host plants and insect vectors have been described. Considering to impossibility of isolation of this bacterium on a nutrient medium, detection and identification are based on the application of molecular methods (conventional PCR, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, nested PCR and LAMP PCR). Taking into consideration the increasing spread of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in Europe, as well as its recent detection in Serbia, the aim of this paper was to raise an awareness about importance of this bacterium and summarize the protocols and molecular methods for its detection and identification.