The recently described superphylum DPANN includes several phyla of uncultivated archaea with small cell sizes, reduced genomes, and limited metabolic capabilities. One of these phyla, “
. Micrarchaeota,” comprises an enigmatic group of archaea found in acid mine drainage environments, the archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms (ARMAN) group. Analysis of their reduced genomes revealed the absence of key metabolic pathways consistent with their partner-associated lifestyle, and physical associations of ARMAN cells with their hosts were documented. However, “
. Micrarchaeota” include several lineages besides the ARMAN group found in nonacidic environments, and none of them have been characterized. Here, we report a complete genome of “
. Micrarchaeota” from a non-ARMAN lineage. Analysis of this genome revealed the presence of metabolic capacities lost in ARMAN genomes that could enable a free-living lifestyle. These results expand our understanding of genetic diversity, lifestyle, and evolution of “
This protocol describes a rapid protein extraction method for the archaeon Candidatus Vulcanisaeta moutnovskia, which can be also implemented for other archaea. The utilization of two different methods for protein extraction constitute the main step of the protocol. Method I involves the extraction with a multi-chaotropic lysis buffer containing a non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent, most efficient for extracting cytosolic proteins. Method II involves a denaturing anionic detergent allowing total disruption of the membranes and capable of extracting both membrane (hydrophobic) and non-membrane (water-soluble, hydrophilic) proteins. The big advantage of the methods is to use general laboratory chemicals to make powerful extraction buffers, resulting in high quality and quantity of proteins. The methods probably are usable for any other archaea or microbial cells, and takes about 14-22 h. Following extraction and further protein digestion, 1D-nano Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC ESI-MSMS) analysis with Triple TOF 5600 and Orbitrap technologies were used for protein identification and further quantification.