Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of “
Liberibacter asiaticus” strain GZQL4, which was collected from Guizhou, China. The GZQL4 strain has a genome size of 1,234,029 bp, a G+C content of 36.5%, 1,204 predicted open reading frames, and 53 RNA genes.
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is present in 10 provinces in China and is associated with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas), which is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri, ACP). To date, HLB and ACP have expanded to Yibin city of Sichuan Province, posing an imminent threat to the citrus belt of the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, an important late-maturing citrus-producing area in China. To understand the epidemiological route of CLas and ACP in newly invaded regions of Sichuan and thereby better establish an HLB interception zone ranging from Leibo to Yibin, we evaluated the molecular variability of 19 CLas draft genomes from citrus or dodder (Cuscuta campestris). They include three type-specific prophage loci, three variable number tandem repeat loci, a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element, and population diversity of 44 ACP mitochondrial genomes. The results indicated that CLas isolates in the newly invaded area (Pingshan) were more diverse than those in the HLB endemic areas (Leibo and Ningnan). Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genomes demonstrated that ACPs in Leibo, Pingshan, and Xuzhou (rural areas) represent a new mitochondrial group (MG4), distinguished by the three unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cox1, nad4, and cytb. However, the ACPs sampled from the urban areas of Cuiping and Xuzhou belonged to the southeastern China group (MG2-1). Altogether, our study revealed multiple sources of ACP and CLas in the HLB interception zone and proposed their transmission route. This study contributes to the formulation of precise HLB prevention and control strategies in the HLB interception zone in Sichuan and could be useful for HLB management efforts in other regions.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) is a pathogen causing Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), which is highly destructive to citrus production. The CLas strains harbor prophages. We identified two unique prophages, designated as P-PA19-1 and P-PA19-2, in CLas strain PA19 from Pakistan using next-generation sequencing analysis. P-PA19-1 prophage has high sequence similarity (identity: 78.23%) at the early-gene region of prophage SC1 (Type 1), but it is significantly divergent in the late-gene region (identity: 62.03%). P-PA19-2 was highly similar to SC2 (Type 2) in the late gene region (identity: 97.96%), and also in the early gene region except for a deletion of a 7,179-bp nucleotide sequence that contains a CRISPR/cas system in SC2. Both P-PA19-1 and P-PA19-2 had circular plasmid forms, and only P-PA19-2 was found integrated in the PA19 chromosome. The two new prophages were only found in Pakistani samples. Identification of prophages enhances our understanding of CLas genomic diversity and also the biology and evolution of CLas prophages.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) is an unculturable, phloem-restricted αProteobacteria, associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), which is one of the most destructive diseases in citrus production worldwide. Here, we present the genome sequences of CLas strains PA19 and PA20 from HLB-affected kinnow trees in Multan, Punjab Province, Pakistan. The CLas genomes of PA19 and PA20 comprise 1,224,156 bp and 1,226,225 bp, respectively, with an average GC content of 36.4%. Both harbored the Type 2 prophage. In this study, we report two CLas genomes from Pakistan, which extends the sequence database of CLas and will contribute to CLas biology and HLB management.