Autophagy, also known as type II programmed cell death, is a cellular mechanism of “self-eating”. Autophagy plays an important role against pathogen infection in numerous organisms. Recently, it has been demonstrated that autophagy can be activated and even manipulated by plant viruses to facilitate their transmission within insect vectors. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in the interactions of insect vectors with plant bacterial pathogens. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a phloem-limited Gram-negative bacterium that infects crops worldwide. Two Lso haplotypes, LsoA and LsoB, are transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli and cause damaging diseases in solanaceous plants (e.g., zebra chip in potatoes). Both LsoA and LsoB are transmitted by the potato psyllid in a persistent circulative manner: they colonize and replicate within psyllid tissues. Following acquisition, the gut is the first organ Lso encounters and could be a barrier for transmission. In this study, we annotated autophagy-related genes (ATGs) from the potato psyllid transcriptome and evaluated their expression in response to Lso infection at the gut interface. In total, 19 ATGs belonging to 17 different families were identified. The comprehensive expression profile analysis revealed that the majority of the ATGs were regulated in the psyllid gut following the exposure or infection to each Lso haplotype, LsoA and LsoB, suggesting a potential role of autophagy in response to Lso at the psyllid gut interface.
Abstract‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a pathogen of solanaceous crops. Two haplotypes of Lso (LsoA and LsoB) are present in North America; both are transmitted by the tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), in a circulative and propagative manner and cause damaging plant diseases (e.g. Zebra chip in potatoes). In this study, we investigated the acquisition and transmission of LsoA or LsoB by the tomato psyllid. We quantified the titer of Lso haplotype A and B in adult psyllid guts after several acquisition access periods (AAPs). We also performed sequential inoculation of tomato plants by adult psyllids following a 7-day AAP and compared the transmission of each Lso haplotype. The results indicated that LsoB population increased faster in the psyllid gut than LsoA. Further, LsoB population plateaued after 12 days, while LsoA population increased slowly during the 16 day-period evaluated. Additionally, LsoB had a shorter latent period and higher transmission rate than LsoA following a 7 day-AAP: LsoB was first transmitted by the adult psyllids between 17 and 21 days following the beginning of the AAP, while LsoA was first transmitted between 21 and 25 days after the beginning of the AAP. Overall, our data suggest that the two Lso haplotypes have distinct acquisition and transmission rates. The information provided in this study will improve our understanding of the biology of Lso acquisition and transmission as well as its relationship with the tomato psyllid at the gut interface.
Liberibacter solanacearum” is a pathogen transmitted by the potato psyllid
(Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in a persistent manner. In this study, we investigated the molecular interaction between “
Liberibacter solanacearum” and the potato psyllid at the gut interface. Specifically, we focused on the apoptotic response of potato psyllids to the infection by two “
Liberibacter solanacearum” haplotypes, LsoA and LsoB.