AbstractA previously unknown haplotype of the plant pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) was found in cultivated carrots and parsnips in eastern Finland. That same haplotype was found in western Finland, over 300 km away, in the family Polygonaceae, the species Fallopia convolvulus (wild buckwheat) and Persicaria lapathifolia (pale persicaria) growing as weeds within carrot and parsnip fields. The infected plants, both apiaceous and polygonaceous, showed symptoms of foliar discolouration. This is the first report of Lso bacteria in plants of the family Polygonaceae. The finding that the polygonaceous plants infected with a previously unknown haplotype of Lso were growing among the apiaceous plants infected with Lso haplotype C suggests that these two haplotypes might be transmitted by different vectors. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the new haplotype, called haplotype H, is distinct from the previously characterized haplotypes and appears to have diverged early from their common ancestor. Multi-locus sequence analysis revealed four different sequence types (strains) within the haplotype H. These findings suggest that the haplotype H is likely to be endemic in northern Europe and that the genetic diversity within the Lso species is higher than previously assumed.