Mediannikov, Oleg


Publications (5)

Phylogenetic relationship between the endosymbiont “Candidatus Riesia pediculicola” and its human louse host

Citation
Hammoud et al. (2022). Parasites & Vectors 15 (1)
Names
Ca. Riesia pediculicola
Subjects
Infectious Diseases Parasitology
Abstract
Abstract Background The human louse (Pediculus humanus) is a haematophagous ectoparasite that is intimately related to its host. It has been of great public health concern throughout human history. This louse has been classified into six divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, F, C and E). As with all haematophagous lice, P. humanus directly depends on the presence of a bacterial symbiont, known as “Candidatus Riesia pediculicola”, to complement their unbalanced diet. In this study, we evaluated the codivergence of human lice around the world and their endosymbiotic bacteria. Using molecular approaches, we targeted lice mitochondrial genes from the six diverged clades and Candidatus Riesia pediculicola housekeeping genes. Methods The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) of lice was selected for molecular analysis, with the aim to identify louse clade. In parallel, we developed four PCR primer pairs targeting three housekeeping genes of Candidatus Riesia pediculicola: ftsZ, groEL and two regions of the rpoB gene (rpoB-1 and rpoB-2). Results The endosymbiont phylogeny perfectly mirrored the host insect phylogeny using the ftsZ and rpoB-2 genes, in addition to showing a significant co-phylogenetic congruence, suggesting a strict vertical transmission and a host–symbiont co-speciation following the evolutionary course of the human louse. Conclusion Our results unequivocally indicate that louse endosymbionts have experienced a similar co-evolutionary history and that the human louse clade can be determined by their endosymbiotic bacteria. Graphical Abstract

Phylogenetic Relationship Between the Endosymbiont “candidatus Riesia Pediculicola” and Its Human Lice Host

Citation
hammoud et al. [posted content, 2021]
Names
Ca. Riesia pediculicola
Abstract
Abstract Background: The human louse is one of the most ancient haematophagous ectoparasites that is related intimately to its host and has been of great concern to public health throughout human history. Previously, Pediculus humanus was classified within six divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, F, C and E). Like all haematophagous lice, P. humanus directly depends on the presence of bacterial symbionts, known as “Candidatus Riesia pediculicola”, to complement their unbalanced diet. In this study, we evaluated the coevolution of human lice around the world and their endosymbiotic bacteria. Using molecular approaches, we targeted lice mitochondrial genes from the six diverged clades and Candidatus R. pediculicola housekeeping genes. Methods: A total of 126 lice were selected for molecular analysis of the cytb gene for lice clade determination. In parallel, four PCR primer pairs were developed targeting three housekeeping genes of Candidatus R. pediculicola: ftsZ, groEL and two regions of the rpoB gene (rpoB-1 and rpoB-2).Results: The endosymbiont phylogeny perfectly mirrored the host insect phylogeny, using the ftsZ and rpoB-2 genes, suggesting a strict vertical transmission and a host-symbiont co-speciation following the evolutionary course of the human louse. Conclusion: Our results unequivocally indicate that lice endosymbiont have experienced a similar co-evolutionary history, and that the human louse clade can be determined by their endosymbiotic bacteria.

Flying Fox Hemolytic Fever, Description of a New Zoonosis Caused by Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis

Citation
Descloux et al. (2020). Clinical Infectious Diseases 73 (7)
Names
Ca. Mycoplasma haemohominis
Subjects
Infectious Diseases Microbiology (medical)
Abstract
Abstract Background Hemotropic mycoplasmas, previously classified in the genus Eperythrozoon, have been reported as causing human infections in Brazil, China, Japan, and Spain. Methods In 2017, we detected DNA from Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis in the blood of a Melanesian patient from New Caledonia presenting with febrile splenomegaly, weight loss, life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and hemophagocytosis. The full genome of the bacterium was sequenced from a blood isolate. Subsequently, we retrospectively (2011–2017) and prospectively (2018–2019) tested patients who had been hospitalized with a similar clinico-biological picture. In addition, as these patients had been in contact with frugivorous bats (authorized under conditions for hunting and eating in New Caledonia), we investigated the role of these animals and their biting flies by testing them for hemotropic mycoplasmas. Results There were 15 patients found to be infected by this hemotropic mycoplasma. Among them, 4 (27%) died following splenectomy performed either for spontaneous spleen rupture or to cure refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The bacterium was cultivated from the patient’s blood. The full genome of the Neocaledonian Candidatus M. haemohominis strain differed from that of a recently identified Japanese strain. Of 40 tested Pteropus bats, 40% were positive; 100% of collected bat flies Cyclopodia horsfieldi (Nycteribiidae, Diptera) were positive. Human, bat, and dipteran strains were highly similar. Conclusions The bacterium being widely distributed in bats, Candidatus M. haemohominis, should be regarded as a potential cause of severe infections in humans.