In China, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) disease is caused by the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus bacterium, which is carried by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. It was hypothesized that the epidemic of the HLB may related with the rate of bacterium presence in the insect vector and bacterium content in plant tissues, as well as the phyllosphere microbe communities changes. This study systematically analyzed the presence or absence of Ca. L. asiaticus in citrus tree leaves and in the insect vector D. citri over a 6-year period using real-time PCR. In addition, changes in the number of bacteria carried by D. citri over 12 months were quantified, as well as the relationship between the proportion of D. citri carrying Ca. L. asiaticus and the proportion of plants infected with Ca. L. asiaticus were analyzed. Results showed that the proportion of D. citri carrying bacteria was stable and relatively low from January to September. The bacteria in citrus leaves relatively low in spring and summer, then peaked in December. The proportion of D. citri carrying bacteria gradually declined from 2014 to 2019. The proportion of D. citri carrying Ca. L. asiaticus showed a significant positive correlation with the proportion of diseased citrus. The phyllosphere bacterial and fungal communities on the healthy citrus leaf were significantly different with the disease leaf in April and December. Pathogenic invasions change the citrus phyllosphere microbial community structure. It could be summarized that citrus Huanglongbing correlated with incidence of Diaphorina citri carrying Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and citrus phyllosphere microbiome.
HighlightsA portable system based on real-time fluorescence analysis was developed for field detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus within 40 min from sample to answer.A smartphone-assisted device was designed for easy operation, reliable nucleic acid amplification, and highly sensitive fluorescence detection, with sensitivity comparable to that of a commercial instrument.A novel homemade 3D printed box was used for in-field reagent storage, and it could maintain low temperature (&lt;4°C) for about 8 hours without power supply.This fully integrated system is stable, easy to use, inexpensive, and has great application prospects in resource-limited areas.Abstract. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a main causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), a destructive disease that has greatly reduced citrus yields and quality. Instruments with high sensitivity and portability are urgently required for on-site testing. In this study, a novel sample-to-answer optical system for on-site detection of Las was developed. Three major functions, including DNA extraction, amplification, and detection, are integrated into a portable case. This system mainly consists of (1) a specially designed 3D printed box for on-site reagent storage that can maintain low temperature (below 4°C) for 7.5 h at ambient temperature (35°C); (2) a custom device, called the IF-Device, for DNA amplification and detection of HLB, with an optimized optical structure, a sensitive signal processing circuit, and a precise temperature control algorithm with an accuracy of ±0.1°C; and (3) a battery-based power supply for the whole system. In a typical test using sodium fluorescein as a standard model, the results showed that the sensitivity of this system (1.0 nM) could easily meet the requirements of fluorescence biosensors. The feasibility of this homemade system was evaluated with samples extracted from infected citrus leaves based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, and the limit of detection (LOD) was approximately 1.0 × 10-4 ng µL-1. The whole detection process for eight samples could be simultaneously accomplished within 40 min, and the results could be displayed on a smartphone in real-time. Moreover, the portable case is anti-interference, low cost, and only 2 kg in weight. Considering its sensitivity, stability, and portability, this highly integrated system possesses promising prospects for in-field detection. Keywords: Field detection, Fluorescence biosensor, Huanglongbing, Isothermal amplification, Sample-to-answer.