Sabaneyeva, Elena


Publications (6)

“Candidatus Mystax nordicus” Aggregates with Mitochondria of Its Host, the Ciliate Paramecium nephridiatum

Citation
Korotaev et al. (2020). Diversity 12 (6)
Names
Ca. Paraholospora Ca. Mystax nordicus Ca. Mystax Ca. Megaira venefica Ca. Hafkinia Ca. Gortzia
Subjects
Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous) Ecological Modelling Ecology Nature and Landscape Conservation
Abstract
Extensive search for new endosymbiotic systems in ciliates occasionally reverts us to the endosymbiotic bacteria described in the pre-molecular biology era and, hence, lacking molecular characterization. A pool of these endosymbionts has been referred to as a hidden bacterial biodiversity from the past. Here, we provide a description of one of such endosymbionts, retrieved from the ciliate Paramecium nephridiatum. This curve-shaped endosymbiont (CS), which shared the host cytoplasm with recently described “Candidatus Megaira venefica”, was found in the same host and in the same geographic location as one of the formerly reported endosymbiotic bacteria and demonstrated similar morphology. Based on morphological data obtained with DIC, TEM and AFM and molecular characterization by means of sequencing 16S rRNA gene, we propose a novel genus, “Candidatus Mystax”, with a single species “Ca. Mystax nordicus”. Phylogenetic analysis placed this species in Holosporales, among Holospora-like bacteria. Contrary to all Holospora species and many other Holospora-like bacteria, such as “Candidatus Gortzia”, “Candidatus Paraholospora” or “Candidatus Hafkinia”, “Ca. Mystax nordicus” was never observed inside the host nucleus. “Ca. Mystax nordicus” lacked infectivity and killer effect. The striking peculiarity of this endosymbiont was its ability to form aggregates with the host mitochondria, which distinguishes it from Holospora and Holospora-like bacteria inhabiting paramecia.

“Candidatus Trichorickettsia mobilis”, a Rickettsiales bacterium, can be transiently transferred from the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium to the planarian Dugesia japonica

Citation
Modeo et al. (2020). PeerJ 8
Names
Ca. Trichorickettsia mobilis
Subjects
General Agricultural and Biological Sciences General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology General Medicine General Neuroscience
Abstract
Most of the microorganisms responsible for vector-borne diseases (VBD) have hematophagous arthropods as vector/reservoir. Recently, many new species of microorganisms phylogenetically related to agents of VBD were found in a variety of aquatic eukaryotic hosts; in particular, numerous new bacterial species related to the genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales) were discovered in protist ciliates and other unicellular eukaryotes. Although their pathogenicity for humans and terrestrial animals is not known, several indirect indications exist that these bacteria might act as etiological agents of possible VBD of aquatic organisms, with protists as vectors. In the present study, a novel strain of the Rickettsia-Like Organism (RLO) endosymbiont “Candidatus (Ca.) Trichorickettsia mobilis” was identified in the macronucleus of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. We performed transfection experiments of this RLO to planarians (Dugesia japonica) per os. Indeed, the latter is a widely used model system for studying bacteria pathogenic to humans and other Metazoa. In transfection experiments, homogenized paramecia were added to food of antibiotic-treated planarians. Treated and non-treated (i.e. control) planarians were investigated at day 1, 3, and 7 after feeding for endosymbiont presence by means of PCR and ultrastructural analyses. Obtained results were fully concordant and suggest that this RLO endosymbiont can be transiently transferred from ciliates to metazoans, being detected up to day 7 in treated planarians’ enterocytes. Our findings might offer insights into the potential role of ciliates or other protists as putative vectors for diseases caused by Rickettsiales or other RLOs and occurring in fish farms or in the wild.

The extracellular association of the bacterium “CandidatusDeianiraea vastatrix” with the ciliateParameciumsuggests an alternative scenario for the evolution ofRickettsiales

Citation
Castelli et al. [posted content, 2018]
Names
Ca. Deianiraea vastatrix
Abstract
AbstractRickettsialesare a lineage of obligatorily intracellularAlphaproteobacteria, encompassing important human pathogens, manipulators of host reproduction, and mutualists. Here we report the discovery of a novelRickettsialesbacterium associated withParamecium, displaying a unique extracellular lifestyle, including the ability to replicate outside host cells. Genomic analyses show that the bacterium possesses a higher capability to synthesize amino acids, compared to all investigatedRickettsiales. Considering these observations, phylogenetic and phylogenomic reconstructions, and re-evaluating the different means of interaction ofRickettsialesbacteria with eukaryotic cells, we propose an alternative scenario for the evolution of intracellularity inRickettsiales. According to our reconstruction, theRickettsialesancestor would have been an extracellular and metabolically versatile bacterium, while obligate intracellularity and genome reduction would have evolved later in parallel and independently in different sub-lineages. The proposed new scenario could impact on the open debate on the lifestyle of the last common ancestor of mitochondria withinAlphaproteobacteria.

Disentangling the Taxonomy of Rickettsiales and Description of Two Novel Symbionts (“Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis” and “Candidatus Fokinia cryptica”) Sharing the Cytoplasm of the Ciliate Protist Paramecium biaurelia

Citation
Szokoli et al. (2016). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82 (24)
Names
Ca. Fokinia cryptica Ca. Bealeia paramacronuclearis
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
Abstract
ABSTRACT In the past 10 years, the number of endosymbionts described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales has constantly grown. Since 2006, 18 novel Rickettsiales genera inhabiting protists, such as ciliates and amoebae, have been described. In this work, we characterize two novel bacterial endosymbionts from Paramecium collected near Bloomington, IN. Both endosymbiotic species inhabit the cytoplasm of the same host. The Gram-negative bacterium “ Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis” occurs in clumps and is frequently associated with the host macronucleus. With its electron-dense cytoplasm and a distinct halo surrounding the cell, it is easily distinguishable from the second smaller symbiont, “ Candidatus Fokinia cryptica,” whose cytoplasm is electron lucid, lacks a halo, and is always surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole. For molecular characterization, the small-subunit rRNA genes were sequenced and used for taxonomic assignment as well as the design of species-specific oligonucleotide probes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that “ Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis” clusters with the so-called “basal” Rickettsiales , and “ Candidatus Fokinia cryptica” belongs to “ Candidatus Midichloriaceae.” We obtained tree topologies showing a separation of Rickettsiales into at least two groups: one represented by the families Rickettsiaceae , Anaplasmataceae , and “ Candidatus Midichloriaceae” (RAM clade), and the other represented by “basal Rickettsiales ,” including “ Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis.” Therefore, and in accordance with recent publications, we propose to limit the order Rickettsiales to the RAM clade and to raise “basal Rickettsiales ” to an independent order, Holosporales ord. nov., inside Alphaproteobacteria , which presently includes four family-level clades. Additionally, we define the family “ Candidatus Hepatincolaceae” and redefine the family Holosporaceae . IMPORTANCE In this paper, we provide the characterization of two novel bacterial symbionts inhabiting the same Paramecium host (Ciliophora, Alveolata). Both symbionts belong to “traditional” Rickettsiales , one representing a new species of the genus “ Candidatus Fokinia” (“ Candidatus Midichloriaceae”), and the other representing a new genus of a “basal” Rickettsiales . According to newly characterized sequences and to a critical revision of recent literature, we propose a taxonomic reorganization of “traditional” Rickettsiales that we split into two orders: Rickettsiales sensu stricto and Holosporales ord. nov. This work represents a critical revision, including new records of a group of symbionts frequently occurring in protists and whose biodiversity is still largely underestimated.