Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran, with >200,000 ha of cultivated area. Recently, outbreaks of the grapevine yellows Bois noir that is associated with phytoplasma strains related to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ were recorded in several Iranian regions. This has resulted in severe economic losses. We carried out a survey in 2015, followed by collection of leaf samples from symptomatic grapevines and weeds. Because no information is available on the molecular epidemiology of ‘Ca. P. solani’ in Iran, multiple gene analyses were carried out here according to molecular characterization of the tuf and vmp1 genes. From the molecular characterization, all of the samples (i.e., grapevines, weeds) were infected with tuf b type. Detailed molecular characterization of the vmp1 gene (i.e., PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism, sequence analysis) defined five molecular types: V1, V4, V10, V15, and V20. The abundance of Convolvulus arvensis in vineyards and detection of the same ‘Ca. P. solani’ molecular types in grapevines and weeds suggest that C. arvensis has a major role in Bois noir epidemiology of Iranian vineyards. Therefore, control strategies should be developed to manage these host plants to reduce inoculum sources of the phytoplasma in vineyards.