Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) have been widely discovered in various ticks, animals, and even human beings. To estimate the possible origin of C. burnetii and its relatives CLEs, the prevalence of C. burnetii and CLEs has been intensively surveyed all over the world.
In the present study, the possible infection of C. burnetii and CLEs in host-seeking Haemaphysalis concinna was performed with meta-transcript analysis with tick specimens harvested from Mudanjiang City, Heilongjiang province, China. The meta-transcript results were subsequently confirmed by the specific sequence of partial 16S rRNA.
A total of three arrays of gene transcripts were harvested, including pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase-eda-thiol-disulfide isomerase and thioredoxin-greA, carB-carA-DnaJ-DnaK-grpE-ppnk, ropC-ropB, and ubiA-non-canonical purine NTP pyrophosphatase-hemK-prfA, which suggest the infection of Candidatus Coxiella mudorwiae in H. concinna. The high identity of the 16S rRNA gene of Candidatus C. mudorwiae achieved in our study strongly supports our meta-transcripts analysis.
The prevalence of Candidatus C. mudorwiae in hard ticks has been discovered in China. More detailed surveys are imperative to clarify the emergence of CLEs and their implication in the epidemiologic characteristics of Q fever.
A novel Borrelia species, Candidatus Borrelia javanense, was found in ectoparasite ticks, Amblyomma javanense, from Manis javanica pangolins seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Overall, 12 tick samples in 227 (overall prevalence 5.3%) were positive for Candidatus B. javanense, 9 (5.1%) in 176 males, and 3 (5.9%) in 51 females. The phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene sequences of the Borrelia sp., exhibited strong evidence that Candidatus B. javanense did not belong to the Lyme disease Borrelia group and the relapsing fever Borrelia group but another lineage of Borrelia. The discovery of the novel Borrelia species suggests that A. javanense may be the transmit vector, and the M. javanica pangolins should be considered a possible origin reservoir in the natural circulation of these new pathogens. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of a novel Borrelia species agent in A. javanense from pangolins. Whether the novel agent is pathogenic to humans is unknown and needs further research.
Neoehrlichia mikurensis” was detected by PCR in 4.0% (34/841) of the rodents tested in this study. The 34 rodents represented nine species from seven regions of China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial
and nearly entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of the agent revealed genetic diversity, which was correlated with its geographic origins.