Case summary A 6-year-old female neutered domestic shorthair cat from Cyprus was presented with multiple ulcerated skin nodules. Cytology and histopathology of the lesions revealed granulomatous dermatitis with intracytoplasmic organisms, consistent with amastigotes of Leishmania species. Biochemistry identified a mild hyperproteinaemia. Blood extraction and PCR detected Leishmania species, Hepatozoon species and ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) DNA. Subsequent sequencing identified Hepatozoon felis. Additionally, the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 locus of Leishmania infantum was partially sequenced and phylogeny showed it to cluster with species derived from dogs in Italy and Uzbekistan, and a human in France. Allopurinol treatment was administered for 6 months. Clinical signs resolved in the second month of treatment with no deterioration 8 months post-treatment cessation. Quantitative PCR and ELISA were used to monitor L infantum blood DNA and antibody levels. The cat had high L infantum DNA levels pretreatment that gradually declined during treatment but increased 8 months post-treatment cessation. Similarly, ELISA revealed high levels of antibodies pretreatment, which gradually declined during treatment and increased slightly 8 months post-treatment cessation. The cat remained PCR positive for CMhm and Hepatozoon species throughout the study. There was no clinical evidence of relapse 24 months post-treatment. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of a cat with leishmaniosis with H felis and CMhm coinfections. The high L infantum DNA levels post-treatment cessation might indicate that although the lesions had resolved, prolonged or an alternative treatment could have been considered.
Feline haemoplasma infection can cause haemolytic anaemia. The natural method of transmission of haemoplasmas between cats is currently unknown but the nature of some of the risk factors for infection suggests that saliva may act as a mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to determine if Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm) DNAs could be amplified from saliva and salivary gland samples collected from haemoplasma-infected cats.
Blood transfusions are commonly administered to cats; associated risks include the transmission of various infectious diseases including Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and ‘ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (Mhm). Blood transfusions in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) solution are commonly administered immediately or stored for up to 1 month prior to administration. It is unknown whether Mhf or Mhm survive in this solution or temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine if Mhf or Mhm remain viable after storage in CPDA-1 for varying periods of time. The results provide evidence that transmission of hemoplasmas to naïve cats occurs after administration of infected feline blood that has been stored in CPDA-1 solution for 1 h (Mhf) and 1 week (Mhm). These findings support the recommendation that cats used as blood donors be screened for Mhf and Mhm infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay prior to use.