AbstractMolecular computing was used to investigate the possible causal agents of chilli crop samples showing mixed symptoms of yellow leaf curl and little leaf type diseases in the Uttar Pradesh province, India. Total genomic DNA was extracted from twenty-five samples and amplified by PCR using a universal primer pair for begomovirus and phytoplasma. Mixed infection samples show positive amplified products for begomovirus (DNA-A and betasatellite) and phytoplasma (16S rRNA and Sec A). The identified begomovirus from chilli samples was identified as a strain isolate of the previously described Chilli Leaf Curl Virus (94.2% nucleotide sequence identity), which is known to infectSolanum lycopersicon, in Oman, whereas the 16S rRNA was identified from the sourceCandidatus Phytoplasma trifolii(99.04% nucleotide sequence identity), which is known to infect Helichrysum flowering plants in India. Subsequently, molecular computing research based on phylogenetic interweaves, putative recombination, amino acid selection, and genetic diversity were investigated, revealing divergent evolutionary patterns with significant variation and recombination events. The majority of the sequence variations observed in begomovirus and phytoplasma were caused via inter- and intra-specific recombination. These findings could be the firstin silicocombined infection analysis of ChiLCV andCa.P.trifoliiin a chilli crop in India, revealing the potential adaption and evolution of begomovirus and phytoplasma to a new geographic range and crop.
“Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia” is associated with witches’ broom disease of lime in Oman and the UAE. A previous study showed that an infection by phytoplasma may not necessarily result in the physical appearance of witches’ broom symptoms in some locations in Oman and the UAE. This study investigated whether phytoplasma strains belonging to “Ca. P. aurantifolia” (based on the 16S rRNA gene analysis) in locations where disease symptoms are expressed are different from phytoplasma in locations where disease symptoms are not expressed. About 21 phytoplasma strains (15 from areas and trees with disease symptoms and six from areas and trees without disease symptoms) were included in the analysis. The study utilized sequences of the imp and SAP11 genes to characterize the 21 strains. Phylogenetic analysis of both genes showed that the 21 strains are similar to each other and to reference strains in GenBank. The study shows that there is a low level of diversity among all phytoplasma strains. In addition, it shows that phytoplasma in places where witches’ broom symptoms are not expressed are similar to phytoplasma in places where disease symptoms are expressed. This may suggest that disease expression is not linked to the presence of different phytoplasma strains, but may be due to other factors such as weather conditions.