AbstractTo verify the parasitic lifestyle ofCandidatusPatescibacteria in the enrichment cultures derived from a methanogenic bioreactor, we applied multifaceted approaches combining cultivation, microscopy, metatranscriptomic, and protein structure prediction analyses. Cultivation experiments with the addition of exogenous methanogenic archaea with acetate, amino acids, and nucleoside monophosphates and 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the increase in the relative abundance ofCa. Patescibacteria and methanogens. The predominantCa. Patescibacteria wereCa. Yanofskybacteria and 32-520 lineages (to which belongs to classCa. Paceibacteria) and positive linear relationships (r2≥ 0.70) between the relative abundance ofCa. Yanofskybacteria andMethanothrix, suggesting that the tendency of the growth rate is similar to that of the host. By fluorescencein situhybridization (FISH) observations, the FISH signals ofMethanothrixandMethanospirillumcells withCa. Yanofskybacteria and with 32-520 lineages, respectively, were significantly lower than those of the methanogens withoutCa. Patescibacteria, suggesting their parasitic interaction. The TEM and SEM observations also support parasitism in that the cell walls and plugs of these methanogens associated with submicron cells were often deformed. In particular, someMethanothrix-like filamentous cells were dented where the submicron cells were attached. Metatranscriptomic and protein structure prediction analyses identified highly expressed secreted genes from the genomes ofCa. Yanofskybacteria and 32-520, and these genes contain adhesion-related domains to the host cells. Considering the results through the combination of microscopic observations, gene expression, and computational protein modeling, we propose that the interactions betweenCa. Yanofskybacteria and 32-520 belonging to classCa. Paceibacteria and methanogenic archaea are parasitism.
A draft genome sequence of an anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacterium, “
Brocadia sinica,” was determined by pyrosequencing and by screening a fosmid library. A 4.07-Mb genome sequence comprising 3 contigs was assembled, in which 3,912 gene-coding regions, 47 tRNAs, and a single
operon were annotated.
The present study investigated the phylogenetic affiliation and physiological characteristics of bacteria responsible for anaerobic ammonium oxidization (anammox); these bacteria were enriched in an anammox reactor with a nitrogen removal rate of 26.0 kg N m−3day−1. The anammox bacteria were identified as representing ‘CandidatusBrocadia sinica’ on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of rRNA operon sequences. Physiological characteristics examined were growth rate, kinetics of ammonium oxidation and nitrite reduction, temperature, pH and inhibition of anammox. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was 0.0041 h−1, corresponding to a doubling time of 7 days. The half-saturation constants (Ks) for ammonium and nitrite of ‘Ca.B. sinica’ were 28±4 and 86±4 µM, respectively, higher than those of ‘CandidatusBrocadia anammoxidans’ and ‘CandidatusKuenenia stuttgartiensis’. The temperature and pH ranges of anammox activity were 25–45 °C and pH 6.5–8.8, respectively. Anammox activity was inhibited in the presence of nitrite (50 % inhibition at 16 mM), ethanol (91 % at 1 mM) and methanol (86 % at 1 mM). Anammox activities were 80 and 70 % of baseline in the presence of 20 mM phosphorus and 3 % salinity, respectively. The yield of biomass and dissolved organic carbon production in the culture supernatant were 0.062 and 0.005 mol C (molNH4+)−1, respectively. This study compared physiological differences between three anammox bacterial enrichment cultures to provide a better understanding of anammox niche specificity in natural and man-made ecosystems.