Background: ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) is a major causal agent of citrus greening disease. The disease primarily involves an asymptomatic, often latent infection of CLas. However, there is no effective technique to distinguish latent-infected trees from healthy ones. This study describes the development of a new detection method for latent CLas infection using cuttings. Methods: Root tissues regenerated from cuttings using symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus trees were prepared for real-time a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test which was used to investigate latent CLas. When some of the regenerated roots were negative for CLas in the first real-time PCR assay, a subsequent cultivation in soils was performed using the CLas-negative cuttings. CLas development during cultivation was evaluated by a second real-time PCR assay using soil-grown roots from seedlings. Results: Previously, CLas had not been detected from leaves of the latent-infected trees in our greenhouse by real-time PCR. In this study, however, CLas was detected at a moderate frequency from the root tissues of cuttings derived from the latent-infected trees, by the same PCR test. For cuttings with regenerated roots that tested negative for CLas by real-time PCR, CLas was frequently detected from roots grown in nursery soil with autoclaving, after cultivation for a month or more. Conclusions: Latent infection with CLas was detectable by real-time PCR using root tissues regenerated by cuttings and roots grown in nursery soil with autoclaving. These results suggest that the new method of investigation would provide great opportunities for early detection of CLas in asymptomatic citrus trees from field surveys, and would accelerate the eradication practice of citrus greening.
AbstractThe gram-negative bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) causes potato zebra chip disease and carrot Lso disease, which resembles a physiological disorder, and has raised concern on its impact on carrot production and whether the pathogen can be transmitted via carrot seeds. Here, we evaluated the possibility of carrot seed transmission of the bacterium using grow-out tests and probability analyses. On the basis of the tests, we concluded that transmission is unlikely in practice. Therefore, this finding will help to promote the international trade of carrot seeds.