AbstractAkkermansiamuciniphila is a human intestinal tract bacterium that plays an important role in the mucus layer renewal. Several studies have demonstrated that it is a modulator for gut homeostasis and a probiotic for human health. The Akkermansia genus contains two species with standing in nomenclature but their genomic diversity remains unclear. In this study, eight new Akkermansia sp. strains were isolated from the human gut. Using the digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), average nucleotide identity (ANI) and core genome-based phylogenetic analysis applied to 104 A.muciniphila whole genomes sequences, strains were reclassified into three clusters. Cluster I groups A.muciniphila strains (including strain ATCC BAA-835T as type strain), whereas clusters II and III represent two new species. A member of cluster II, strain Marseille-P6666 differed from A.muciniphila strain ATCC BAA-835T and from A.glycaniphila strain PytT in its ability to grow in microaerophilic atmosphere up to 42 °C, to assimilate various carbon sources and to produce acids from a several compounds. The major fatty acids of strain Marseille-P6666 were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic and pentadecanoic acids. The DNA G + C content of strain Marseille-P6666 was 57.8%. On the basis of these properties, we propose the name A.massiliensis sp. nov. for members of cluster II, with strain Marseille-P6666T (= CSUR P6666 = CECT 30548) as type strain. We also propose the name “Candidatus Akkermansia timonensis” sp. nov. for the members of cluster III, which contains only uncultivated strains, strain Akk0196 being the type strain.
The candidate phyla radiation (CPR) has been described as an obligatory group of ultrasmall bacteria associated with host bacteria. They phylogenetically represent a subdivision of bacteria distinct from other living organisms. Using polyphasic approaches, we screened human faecal samples for the detection of Saccharibacteria. The new sequences obtained by sequencing were compared to the complete CPR genomes available to date. Then, we attempted a co-culture of CPR-bacteria and non-CPR bacteria from human faecal samples. We finally aimed to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of these Saccharibacteria sequences in human sources in 16S amplicon datasets. We were able to reconstitute two high-quality Saccharibacteria genomes named Minimicrobia massiliensis and Minimicrobia timonensis. We have established, for the first time in human digestive samples, the coculture of Candidatus Saccharibacteria with two different bacterial hosts. Finally, we showed that 12.8% (610/4,756) of samples sequenced in our laboratory were positive for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to M.massiliensis. and significantly enriched in human respiratory and oral microbiota. Here, we reported the first genomes and coculture of Saccharibacteria from human gut specimens. This study opens a new field, particularly in the study of the involvement of CPR in the human intestinal microbiota.
Hemotropic mycoplasmas, previously classified in the genus Eperythrozoon, have been reported as causing human infections in Brazil, China, Japan, and Spain.
In 2017, we detected DNA from Candidatus Mycoplasma haemohominis in the blood of a Melanesian patient from New Caledonia presenting with febrile splenomegaly, weight loss, life-threatening autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and hemophagocytosis. The full genome of the bacterium was sequenced from a blood isolate. Subsequently, we retrospectively (2011–2017) and prospectively (2018–2019) tested patients who had been hospitalized with a similar clinico-biological picture. In addition, as these patients had been in contact with frugivorous bats (authorized under conditions for hunting and eating in New Caledonia), we investigated the role of these animals and their biting flies by testing them for hemotropic mycoplasmas.
There were 15 patients found to be infected by this hemotropic mycoplasma. Among them, 4 (27%) died following splenectomy performed either for spontaneous spleen rupture or to cure refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The bacterium was cultivated from the patient’s blood. The full genome of the Neocaledonian Candidatus M. haemohominis strain differed from that of a recently identified Japanese strain. Of 40 tested Pteropus bats, 40% were positive; 100% of collected bat flies Cyclopodia horsfieldi (Nycteribiidae, Diptera) were positive. Human, bat, and dipteran strains were highly similar.
The bacterium being widely distributed in bats, Candidatus M. haemohominis, should be regarded as a potential cause of severe infections in humans.
AbstractWe used phenotypic, genomic and phylogenetic information following the taxono-genomics approach to demonstrate that strain Marseille–P3254, isolated from an ileal sample of a 76-year old woman who underwent upper and lower digestive tract endoscopy for esophagitis and colonic polyp, is representative of a novel bacterial genus within the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes. It is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium without catalase and oxidase activities. The genome of strain Marseille–P3254 is 2,468,496-bp long with a 40.1% G + C content. This new bacterium is most closely related to Eubacterium dolichum, with which it shares 90.7% 16S rRNA sequence similarity. In addition, genomic comparison using the digital DNA–DNA hybridization and OrthoANI analyses between the novel organism and the E. dolichum type strain revealed identities of 25.2 and 68.91%, respectively. The major fatty acids were C16: 0, C18: 1n9 and C18: 0. Based on these data, we propose the creation of the new genus Merdibacter gen. nov., with strain Marseille-P3254T (=CSUR P3254 = DSM 103534) being the type strain of the new species Merdibacter massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov.