AbstractRickettsiales bacteria in arthropods play a significant role in both public health and arthropod ecology. However, the extensive genetic diversity of Rickettsiales endosymbionts of arthropods is still to be discovered. In 2016, 515 arthropods belonging to 9 species of four classes (Insecta, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Arachnida) were collected in Serbia. The presence and genetic diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria were evaluated by characterizing the 16S rRNA (rrs), citrate synthase (gltA) and heat shock protein (groEL) genes. The presence of various Rickettsiales bacteria was identified in the majority of tested arthropod species. The results revealed co-circulation of five recognized Rickettsiales species including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia and Wolbachia, as well as four tentative novel species, including one tentative novel genus named Neowolbachia. These results suggest the remarkable genetic diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in certain arthropod species in this region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Ixodes ricinus ticks highlights the potential public health risk of human Rickettsia infection.