AbstractMembers of the genus Acidithiobacillus, now ranked within the class Acidithiobacillia, are model bacteria for the study of chemolithotrophic energy conversion under extreme conditions. Knowledge of the genomic and taxonomic diversity of Acidithiobacillia is still limited. Here, we present a systematic analysis of nearly 100 genomes from the class sampled from a wide range of habitats. Some of these genomes are new and others have been reclassified on the basis of advanced genomic analysis, thus defining 19 Acidithiobacillia lineages ranking at different taxonomic levels. This work provides the most comprehensive classification and pangenomic analysis of this deep-branching class of Proteobacteria to date. The phylogenomic framework obtained illuminates not only the evolutionary past of this lineage, but also the molecular evolution of relevant aerobic respiratory proteins, namely the cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidases.