Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus plants caused by the obligate and phloem-limiting bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). Reliable detection methods are important for successful control of the disease. This study was aimed to develop a rapid and user-friendly on-site detection system for Las using the TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay. The Las-specific on-site detection system could be completed within one hour by simple DNA extraction coupled with a portable POCKIT device, which can perform PCR amplification and automatically provide qualitative results derived from fluorescence signals. The sensitivity of the TaqMan probe-iiPCR assay could be as low as single copy of Las, comparable to a real-time PCR method. Further testing of the field citrus samples showed 100% agreement between the TaqMan probe-iiPCR assay and the real-time PCR method, and the on-site detection system also demonstrated a great performance of Las detection. With high specificity and sensitivity, the on-site detection system developed in this study becomes a simple, rapid and powerful tool for detecting Las in fields.