During the winter of 2006–2007, plants in commercial tomato greenhouses (GH-1 and GH-2; total 320 acres [129.5 ha]) in Arizona were infested with the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) and more than 60% and ~20% of the plants, respectively, exhibited leaf curling, chlorosis, and shortened internodes. In addition, some plants in GH-1 developed an unusual ‘vein-greening’ phenotype. Nucleic acids were isolated from 10 symptomatic and three asymptomatic plants from each greenhouse. PCR primers designed to amplify a phytoplasma-like 16S rDNA (850 bp) yielded the expected size product from GH-1 samples, whereas samples from GH-2 and the asymptomatic samples from both greenhouses did not. Several 16S rDNA PCR products (3 of 60) when cloned and sequenced, surprisingly shared 97% homology with ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (GenBank No. GQ926917). PCR primers PSY680F 5′-GTTCGGAATAACTGGGCGTA-3′ and PSY1R 5′-CCCATAAGGGCCATGAGGACT-3′, based on the resultant 16S rDNA sequences, were used to amplify a 680-bp fragment from plant DNA extracts and psyllid lysates (1). A robust PCR product (~680 bp) was obtained from 10 of 10 GH-1 plant extracts (GQ926918) and from a GH-1-derived psyllid colony (28 of 35 adults) (GQ926919) and the tomato plants on which they were reared. In contrast, no 680-bp product was obtained from GH-1 asymptomatic plants (0 of 3), GH-2 plants (0 of 10 symptomatic; 0 of 3 asymptomatic), GH-2-derived psyllid colonies (0 of 35 adults), or psyllid colony tomato plants (data not shown). At least three 680-bp amplicons for each sample type were cloned and 8 to 10 inserts were sequenced for each. BLAST analysis revealed that all 680-bp sequences shared 99 to 100% nt identity with the analogous 16SrDNA from “Ca. Liberibacter psyllaurous” (2) and synonym “Ca. L. solanacearum” (3). A second molecular marker was obtained with the 1611F and 480R primers (2) to amplify the 16SrDNA-23S-ITS (980 bp) from >3 plant extracts and psyllid lysates that tested positive for liberibacter. Clustal W alignment of the 16S-23S-ITS sequences from GH-1 original tomato plants and psyllid colony plants (GQ926920) and psyllids (GQ926921) indicated they were 100% identical to each other and BLAST analysis indicated 99 to 100% shared identity with “Ca. L. psyllaurous” (EU812558) (synonym “Ca. L. solanacearum”). Transmission electron microscopy examination of GH-1 and GH-2 psyllids revealed rod and pleomorphic-shaped bacteria (0.5 to 2.0+ μm) at the brain-salivary gland interface in psyllids from the GH-1 liberibacter-positive colony. No such bacteria were observed in GH-2 liberibacter-negative psyllids. These results support an etiological role of a new liberibacter spp. in the development of the ‘vein-greening’ symptom phenotype. In contrast, the GH-2 ‘yellows’ phenotype is reminiscent of ‘psyllid toxicity’ in tomato colonized by B. cockerelli (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of distinct psyllid-associated diseases in greenhouse tomato in Arizona, one associated with a new ‘Ca. Liberibacter’ spp., manifest as ‘vein-greening’ disease, and the other associated with psyllid feeding, in which liberibacter is undetectable in plants and psyllids, and is manifest as the ‘tomato psyllid yellows’ disease. References: (1) D. R. Frohlich et al. Mol. Ecol. 8:1683, 1999. (2) A. K. Hansen et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:5862, 2008. (3) L. W. Liefting et al. Plant Dis. 93:208, 2009. (4) H. J. Pack. Utah Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 209, 1929.