Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (D. citri) is an insect vector of phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiatus’ (CLas), the presumed pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). Recently, our lab has preliminarily found it acquired and transmitted Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), which was previously suggested to be vectored by species of aphids. However, the influences of one of the pathogens on the acquisition and transmission efficiency of the other pathogen remain unknown. In this study, CLas and CTV acquisition and transmission by D. citri at different development stages under field and laboratory conditions were determined. CTV could be detected from the nymphs, adults, and honeydew of D. citri but not from the eggs and exuviates of them. CLas in plants might inhibit CTV acquisition by D. citri as lower CTV–positive rates and CTV titers were detected in D. citri collected from HLB-affected trees compared to those from CLas–free trees. D. citri were more likely to obtain CTV than CLas from host plants co-infected with the two pathogens. Intriguingly, CTV in D. citri facilitated the acquisition and transmission of CLas, but CLas carried by D. citri had no significant effect on the transmission of CTV by the same vector. Molecular detection and microscopy methods confirmed the enrichment of CTV in the midgut after a 72-h acquisition access period. Collectively, these results raise essential scientific questions for further research on the molecular mechanism of pathogen transmission by D. citri and provide new ideas for the comprehensive prevention and control of HLB and CTV.
“Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) is a phloem-restricted α-proteobacterium that is associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), which is the most destructive disease that affects all varieties of citrus. Although midrib is usually used as a material for CLas detection, we recently found that the bacterium was enriched in fruits, especially in the fruit pith. However, no study has revealed the molecular basis of these two parts in responding to CLas infection. Therefore, we performed transcriptome and UHPLC–MS-based targeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses in order to organize the essential genes and metabolites that are involved. Transcriptome and metabolome characterized 4834 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 383 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) between the two materials, wherein 179 DEGs and 44 DAMs were affected by HLB in both of the tissues, involving the pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, and photosynthesis. Notably, we discovered that the gene expression that is related to beta-glucosidase and endoglucanase was up-regulated in fruits. In addition, defense-related gene expression and metabolite accumulation were significantly down-regulated in infected fruits. Taken together, the decreased amount of jasmonic acid, coupled with the reduced accumulation of phenylpropanoid and the increased proliferation of indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid, compared to leaf midribs, may contribute largely to the enrichment of CLas in fruit piths, resulting in disorders of photosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism.