IntroductionCandidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) and more specifically Candidatus Saccharibacteria (TM7) have now been established as ubiquitous members of the human oral microbiota. Additionally, CPR have been reported in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. However, the exploration of new human niches has been limited to date.MethodsIn this study, we performed a prospective and retrospective screening of TM7 in human samples using standard PCR, real-time PCR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shotgun metagenomics.ResultsUsing Real-time PCR and standard PCR, oral samples presented the highest TM7 prevalence followed by fecal samples, breast milk samples, vaginal samples and urine samples. Surprisingly, TM7 were also detected in infectious samples, namely cardiac valves and blood cultures at a low prevalence (under 3%). Moreover, we observed CPR-like structures using SEM in all sample types except cardiac valves. The reconstruction of TM7 genomes in oral and fecal samples from shotgun metagenomics reads further confirmed their high prevalence in some samples.ConclusionThis study confirmed, through their detection in multiple human samples, that TM7 are human commensals that can also be found in clinical settings. Their detection in clinical samples warrants further studies to explore their role in a pathological setting.
The candidate phyla radiation (CPR) has been described as an obligatory group of ultrasmall bacteria associated with host bacteria. They phylogenetically represent a subdivision of bacteria distinct from other living organisms. Using polyphasic approaches, we screened human faecal samples for the detection of Saccharibacteria. The new sequences obtained by sequencing were compared to the complete CPR genomes available to date. Then, we attempted a co-culture of CPR-bacteria and non-CPR bacteria from human faecal samples. We finally aimed to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of these Saccharibacteria sequences in human sources in 16S amplicon datasets. We were able to reconstitute two high-quality Saccharibacteria genomes named Minimicrobia massiliensis and Minimicrobia timonensis. We have established, for the first time in human digestive samples, the coculture of Candidatus Saccharibacteria with two different bacterial hosts. Finally, we showed that 12.8% (610/4,756) of samples sequenced in our laboratory were positive for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to M.massiliensis. and significantly enriched in human respiratory and oral microbiota. Here, we reported the first genomes and coculture of Saccharibacteria from human gut specimens. This study opens a new field, particularly in the study of the involvement of CPR in the human intestinal microbiota.