Aguilar, E.


Publications (7)

First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on Pepper in Honduras

Citation
Munyaneza et al. (2014). Plant Disease 98 (1)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
In April and May of 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection (2,4) were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Many of the fields were infested with the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli, a vector of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (3). The plants exhibited chlorotic or pale green apical growth and leaf cupping, sharp tapering of the leaf apex, shortened internodes, and overall stunting (2,4). All cultivars grown were affected and 20 to 75% of plants in each field were symptomatic. Pepper (var. Nataly) plant samples were collected from a total of eight affected fields (two fields per department). Total DNA was extracted from the top whole leaf tissue of a total of 19 plants, including 14 symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic pepper plants, with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer extraction method (1). The DNA samples were then tested by PCR using specific primer sets OA2/OI2c and OMB 1482f/2086r to amplify a portion of 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (OMB) genes, respectively, of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (1,2). OMB gene and 16S rDNA fragments of 605 and 1,168 bp, respectively, were amplified from the DNA of 7 of 14 (50%) symptomatic plants with each primer set, indicating the presence of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum.’ No ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ was detected in the five asymptomatic plants with either primer sets. DNA amplicons with both primer sets were cloned from the DNA of plant samples collected from each of the three departments: Francisco Morazán (in the locality of Zamorano), Ocotepeque (municipality of Plan del Rancho in Sinuapa), and El Paraíso (municipality of Danlí), and four clones of each of the six amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the 16S rDNA resulted in a single consensus sequence for all three locations (deposited in GenBank as Accession Nos. KF188226, KF188227, and KF188228) and showed 100% identity to numerous 16S rDNA sequences of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ in GenBank, including accessions HM245242, JF811596, and KC768319. Similarly, identical OMB consensus sequences were observed in all three locations (deposited in GenBank as KF188230, KF188231, and KF188233) that are 100% identical to several ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ sequences in GenBank (e.g., KC768331 and CP002371) along with a second consensus sequence (deposited in GenBank as accession KF188232) from Ocotepeque that was 99% identical to the consensus sequence from the three locations and sequences in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ associated with pepper crops in Honduras, where pepper constitutes an economically important commodity. This bacterium has also caused millions of dollars in losses to potato and several other solanaceous crops in United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand (1,2,3,4). Furthermore, ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ has been reported to severely damage carrot crops in Europe, where it is transmitted to carrot by the psyllids Trioza apicalis and Bactericera trigonica (3). Monitoring this pathogen and its vectors will prevent serious damage they cause to economically important crops. References: (1) J. M. Crosslin. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (2) L. W. Liefting et al. Plant Dis. 93:208, 2009. (3) J. E. Munyaneza. Am. J. Pot. Res. 89:329, 2012. (4) J. E. Munyaneza et al. Plant Dis. 93:1076, 2009.

First Report of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ Infecting Eggplant in Honduras

Citation
Munyaneza et al. (2013). Plant Disease 97 (12)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
In May of 2012, eggplant (Solanum melongena) plants in an experimental research plot located at Zamorano in the Department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were observed with symptoms that included leaf chlorosis and cupping, overall stunting, and production of small and malformed fruits. The research plot was planted next to a commercial tomato field heavily infested with the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli, a vector of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (1,2,3). This bacterium severely affects potato and other solanaceous species and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease (2,3). The plot was planted with the eggplant variety ‘China’ and about 25% of the plants were symptomatic. A total of 10 eggplant samples, including five symptomatic and five asymptomatic plants, were collected from the plot. Total DNA was extracted from the leaf tissue of each of the collected plants with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer extraction method (1). The DNA samples were then tested by PCR using specific primer sets OA2/OI2c and OMB 1482f/2086r to amplify a portion of 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (OMB) genes, respectively, of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ (1,2). OMB gene and 16S rDNA fragments of 605 and 1,168 bp, respectively, were amplified from the DNA of two of the five (40%) symptomatic plants with each primer set, indicating the presence of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum.’ No ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ was detected in the five asymptomatic plants with either primer sets. DNA amplicons with both primer sets were cloned from the DNA of the two ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’-positive plant samples and four clones of each of the four amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the 16S rDNA resulted in two independent but related consensus sequences (deposited in GenBank as Accession Nos. KF188224 and KF188225) and were 99% similar to each other. The two sequences showed 99 to 100% identity to a number of 16S rDNA sequences of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ in Genbank, including accessions HM245242, FJ811596, and KC768319. For the OMB amplicons, a single consensus sequence was obtained following clone sequencing and was deposited in GenBank as accession KF188229. BLASTn analysis of the sequence indicated that it was 100% identical to several OMB sequences of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ in GenBank, including accessions KC768331 and CP002371. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ associated with eggplant in Honduras. Eggplant is an economically important commodity in Central America and serious damage to this crop due to this plant pathogen could expand throughout the region, especially if its insect vector B. cockerelli is not properly managed. ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ has also caused millions of dollars in losses to potato and several other solanaceous crops in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand (2,3). In addition, this bacterium severely damages carrot crops in Europe, where it is transmitted to carrot by the psyllids Trioza apicalis and B. trigonica (3,4). It is imperative that both ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ and its insect vectors be effectively monitored and managed to minimize their threat to economically important vegetable crops in many parts of the world. References: (1) J. M. Crosslin et al. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (2) L. W. Liefting et al. Plant Dis. 93:208, 2009. (3) J. E. Munyaneza. Am. J. Pot. Res. 89:329, 2012. (4) J. E. Munyaneza et al. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:1060, 2010.

First Report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” on Tobacco in Honduras

Citation
Aguilar et al. (2013). Plant Disease 97 (10)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
In April of 2012, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with viral infection were observed in commercial fields in the Department of El-Paraíso, Honduras. Symptoms on affected plants included apical leaf curling and stunting, overall chlorosis and plant stunting, young plant deformation with cabbage-like leaves, wilting, and internal vascular necrosis of stems and leaf petioles. All cultivars grown were affected, with disease incidence ranging from 5 to 80% of symptomatic plants per field. The fields were also heavily infested with the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli. This psyllid is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand and has been shown to transmit the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” to potato, tomato, and other solanaceous species (2,3). Tobacco (cv. Habano criollo) plant samples were collected from one field in the municipality of Trojes. Initial testing of the plant samples for viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and Potato virus Y, using Immunostrips (Agdia, Elkhart, IN) were negative. Total DNA was then extracted from leaf tissues of a total of 13 plants, including eight symptomatic plants and five asymptomatic plants with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer extraction method (2,4). The DNA samples were tested by PCR using specific PCR primer pairs OA2/OI2c and OMB 1482f/2086r, to amplify a portion of 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (OMB) gene of “Ca. L. solanacearum,” respectively (2). All eight (100%) symptomatic plant samples were positive for “Ca. L. solanacearum” with both sets of primer pairs. “Ca. L. solanacearum” was not detected in the asymptomatic plants. The 16S rDNA and OMB gene amplicons of two plant samples each were cloned and four clones of each of the four amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the consensus sequences confirmed “Ca. L. solanaeacrum” in the tobacco samples. The 16S rDNA consensus sequences (1,168 bp) of all amplicons were identical and showed 100% identity with several 16S rDNA sequences of “Ca. L. solanacearum” in GenBank (e.g., Accession Nos. HM245242, JF811596, and JX559779). The consensus sequence of the OMB amplicon (605 bp) showed 97 to 100% homology with a number of “Ca. L. solanacearum” OMB sequences in GenBank, including Accession Nos. CP002371, FJ914617, JN848754 and JN848752. The tobacco-associated consensus 16S rDNA and OMB sequences from this study were deposited in GenBank as Accession Nos. KC768320 and KC768328, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of “Ca. L. solanacearum” associated with tobacco in Honduras, where this cash crop is economically important. This bacterium has also caused millions of dollars in losses to potato, tomato, and several other solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand, particularly in regions where B. cockerelli is present (3). Furthermore, “Ca. L. solanacearum” has caused significant economic damage to carrot crops in Europe, where it is transmitted by the psyllids Trioza apicalis in northern Europe (4) and B. trigonica in the Mediterranean region (1). References: (1) A. Alfaro-Fernandez et al. Plant Dis. 96:581, 2012. (2) J. M. Crosslin. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (3) J. E. Munyaneza. Am. J. Pot. Res. 89:329, 2012. (4) J. E. Munyaneza et al. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:1060, 2010.

First Report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” on Tomato in Honduras

Citation
Aguilar et al. (2013). Plant Disease 97 (10)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) crops grown in several departments of Honduras and heavily infested with the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli were observed in April of 2012 with plant symptoms suggestive of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection. B. cockerelli is a serious pest of potato, tomato, and other solanaceous plants and a vector of “Ca. L. solanacearum” (1,2,3,4). The symptoms included overall chlorosis, severe stunting, leaf cupping, excessive branching of axillary shoots, and leaf purpling and scorching (2,3). Disease incidence ranged from 5 to 50% symptomatic plants per field. Tomato (cv. Pony) plant samples were collected from two psyllid-infested commercial fields in the municipalities of Danli and Comayagua in the departments of El-Paraiso and Comayagua, respectively. Total DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of 50 and 20 symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively, with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer extraction method (1,3). The DNA samples were tested for “Ca. L. solanacearum” by PCR with primer pairs specific for 16S rDNA (OA2 and OI2c) and the outer membrane protein gene (OMB 1482f and 2086r) of the bacterium (1,2). Ten (20%) of the 50 symptomatic tomato samples were positive for “Ca. L. solanacearum” using both primer pairs and the remaining samples were negative for the bacterium with both primer sets. None of the 20 asymptomatic plants tested positive for “Ca. L. solanacearum”. Amplicons from DNA of two plant samples (one plant/municipality) with each primer pair were cloned and four clones of each of the four amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the 16S rDNA consensus sequences from the clones (deposited in GenBank as Accession Nos. KC768321 and KC768322) were identical for both locations and showed 99 to 100% identity to several “Ca. L. solanacearum” sequences in GenBank (e.g., JN848753, JN84856, and HM246509). The OMB consensus sequences from the two tomato plants (deposited in GenBank as KC768329 and KC768330) were 100% identical to OMB sequences of Lso in GenBank (CP002371 and JN48754, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of “Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum” associated with tomato crops in Honduras. This bacterium has caused millions of dollars in losses to the tomato industry in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand (2,3,4). Serious damages to tomato crops due to “Ca. L. solanacearum” could expand throughout Central America, especially in those countries where B. cockerelli occurs. References: (1) J. M. Crosslin. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (2) L. W. Liefting et al. Plant Dis. 93:208, 2009. (3) J. E. Munyaneza et al. Plant Dis. 93:1076, 2009. (4) J. E. Munyaneza. Am. J. Pot. Res. 89:329, 2012.

First Report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” Associated with Psyllid-Infested Tobacco in Nicaragua

Citation
Munyaneza et al. (2013). Plant Disease 97 (9)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
In April of 2012, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with symptoms resembling those caused by viral infection were observed in commercial fields in several departments in Nicaragua, including Esteli and Nueva Segovia. Heavy infestations of the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli, a major insect pest of potato and other solanaceous crops and vector of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) (2,3), were observed in the affected fields. All cultivars grown were affected and 5 to 100% of plants in each field were symptomatic. Symptoms on affected plants included apical leaf curling and stunting, overall chlorosis and plant stunting, young plant deformation with cabbage-like leaves, wilting, internal vascular necrosis of stems and leaf petioles, and overall poor leaf quality. Plant samples were collected from a total of three psyllid-infested fields in the municipalities of Esteli, Condega, and Jalapa (one field/municipality). The plant samples were first tested for viruses, including Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and Impatiens necrotic spot virus, using Immunostrips (Agdia, Elkhart, IN) and no virus was detected. Total DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of a total of 22 plants, including 17 symptomatic plants and five asymptomatic plants from two cultivars (Corojo and Habano) with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer extraction method (2,4). The DNA samples were tested by PCR using specific primer pairs OA2/OI2c and OMB 1482f/2086r, to amplify a portion of 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (OMB) genes, respectively, of Lso (2). 16 rDNA and OMB gene-derived fragments of 1,168 and 605 bp, respectively, were amplified from the DNA of 13 of 17 (76.5%) symptomatic plants, indicating the presence of Lso. No Lso was detected in the five asymptomatic plants. DNA amplicons of three plant samples (one plant/field) with each primer pair were cloned and two to four clones of each of the six amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the 16S rDNA consensus sequences was the same for all three locations (GenBank Accession Nos. KC768323, KC768324, and KC768325) and showed 100% identity to numerous 16 rDNA sequences of Lso in GenBank, including accessions HM245242, JF811596, and JX559779. Similarly, identical OMB consensus sequences were observed in all three locations (KC768331 and KC768332 for Jalapa and Condega, respectively) that are 97 to 100% identical to a number of Lso sequences in GenBank (e.g., CP002371, FJ914617, JN848754, and JN848752). A second OMB sequence was isolated from the Esteli sample (KC768333) that was 98% identical with the consensus sequences from this and other sites and 100% identical to an OMB sequence from Lso in GenBank (JN848754). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lso associated with tobacco. Tobacco is an important crop in many parts of the world, including Central and South America. This bacterium has also caused millions of dollars in losses to potato and several other solanaceous crops in the Americas and New Zealand (3). In addition, this plant pathogen has been reported as serious pest of carrot in Europe, where it is associated with the psyllids Trioza apicalis and B. trigonica (1,4). References: (1) A. Alfaro-Fernandez et al. Plant Dis. 96:581, 2012. (2) J. M. Crosslin. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (3) J. E. Munyaneza. Am. J. Pot. Res. 89:329, 2012. (4) J. E. Munyaneza et al. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:1060, 2010.

First Report of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” on Tomato in El Salvador

Citation
Bextine et al. (2013). Plant Disease 97 (9)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
In April of 2012, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown near the town of Yuroconte in the municipality of La Palma, Chalatenango, El Salvador, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection. The symptoms included overall chlorosis, severe stunting, leaf cupping, excessive branching of axillary shoots, and leaf purpling and scorching (1,2,3). Disease incidence in several fields in the area ranged from 40 to 60%. Heavy infestations of the potato/tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, were observed in the affected fields and this insect has been shown to transmit “Ca. L. solanacearum” to tomato and other solanaceous species (1,2,3). Leaf samples and psyllids were collected from one of the fields and total DNA was purified from the leaves of 8 and 10 symptomatic and asymptomatic plants, respectively (2,3). DNA was also extracted from the psyllids and the samples were tested by PCR for species confirmation. PCR oligonucleotide primers specific for both 16S rDNA (OA2 and OI2c) and a gene for a surface antigen for the outer membrane protein (OMB) (OMB 1482f and 2086r) of “Ca. L. solanacearum” were used to confirm the presence of the bacterium in infected tomatoes (1). Four of the eight symptomatic tomatoes (50%) tested positive for “Ca. L. solanacearum” using both primer pairs and all asymptomatic plants were negative for the bacterium. The collected psyllids were first identified through a morphological key, then verified using species-specific PCR primers (CO1 F3 and CO1 meltR) that generated a 94-bp fragment that was consistent with DNA from B. cockerelli (4). Amplicons generated with DNA from two plant samples with each primer pair were cloned and four clones of each of the four amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the 16S rDNA consensus sequences from the clones (1,168 bp; deposited in GenBank as Accession Nos. KC768318 and KC768319) showed 100% identity to “Ca. L. solanacearum” sequences in GenBank (HM246509 and HM245242, respectively). Two OMB consensus sequences were 98% identical (deposited in GenBank as KC768326 and KC768327) and both sequences were 97 to 100% identical to a number of “Ca. L. solanacearum” sequences in GenBank (e.g., CP002371, FJ914617, JN848754, and JN848752). To our knowledge, this is the first report of “Ca. L. solanacearum” associated with tomato in El Salvador and the first formal report of the bacterium in the country. This bacterium has caused millions of dollars in losses to the tomato industry in New Zealand, Mexico and the United States (2,3). Tomatoes are an economically important commodity in Central America and are severely damaged by “Ca. L. solanacearum” infection. The confirmation of “Ca. L. solanacearum” infections in El Salvador alerts the agricultural sector to the presence of this serious pathogen. References: (1) J. M. Crosslin. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (2) L. W. Liefting et al. Plant Dis. 93:208, 2009. (3) J. E. Munyaneza et al. Plant Dis. 93:1076, 2009. (4) K. D. Swisher et al. Environ. Entomol. 41:1019, 2012.

First Report of Zebra Chip and ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ on Potatoes in Nicaragua

Citation
Bextine et al. (2013). Plant Disease 97 (8)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
In September 2011, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers grown in Nicaragua outside of Estelí and Jinotega were observed with internal discoloration suggestive of zebra chip (ZC); and the plants showed foliar symptoms of chlorosis, leaf scorching, wilting, vascular discoloration, swollen nodes, twisted stems, and aerial tubers (3). Disease incidence ranged from 50 to 95% in eight fields ranging from 5 to 12 ha in the Estelí and Jinotega regions of Nicaragua. Leaf samples and psyllids were collected from two fields, and total DNA was purified from the leaves of 17 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic plants. DNA was also extracted from 20 individual potato psyllids. Primers specific for 16S rDNA (OA2 and OI2c) and the surface antigen gene (OMB 1482f and 2086r) of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLs) were used to confirm the presence of the pathogen in infected potatoes and insects (2). All symptomatic potato leaf samples tested positive for the presence of CLs using both primers, and no asymptomatic plants had positive results. Seven insects tested positive for the presence of CLs. 16S rDNA sequences obtained for all positive samples (1,071 bp) were identical and showed 99 to 100% identity to a number of rDNA sequences of CLs in GenBank (Accession Nos. HM246509 and FJ957897). 16S rDNA sequences from two CLs-infected plants, one from Estelí, Nicaragua (JX559779) and one from Jinotega, Nicaragua (JK559780), were deposited in GenBank. Identity of insects was done using a morphological key, and then verified as Bactericera cockerelli using a real-time PCR assay with melt temperature analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene, as described by Chapman et al. (1). Sequencing of the amplified DNA yielded an approximately 63-bp read, with 100% homology to reference sequences of B. cockerelli (AY971886) and those obtained from psyllids collected in McAllen, TX, in 2010. B. cockerelli samples were collected from both locations. Similar to previous reports of ZC in new locations, foliar and tuber symptoms associated with ZC were observed in all eight fields in these two Nicaraguan potato-growing regions, specific PCR amplification with two primer pairs was completed, 16S rDNA sequence analyses showed 100% similarity to reference sequences of CLs, and the presence of potato psyllids which tested positive for the presence of CLs provide evidence that ZC is now present in Nicaragua. Potatoes rank in the top 20 commodities produced in Nicaragua, resulting in >$4.5M annual revenue. Because CLs has caused significant economic damage to potatoes in the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, this finding has significance for potato production in Central America. References: (1) R. I. Chapman et al. Southwest. Entomol. 37:475, 2012. (2) J. M. Crosslin. Southwest. Entomol. 36:125, 2011. (3) L. W. Liefting et al. Internat. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:2274, 2009.